Also refer terms and definitions from Core GPG.
Adventure Activity Standard
Active Participant: a
participant who is either a climber, abseiler, belayer
Activity leaders: the
collective noun for instructor(s), supervisor(s) and/or manager(s).
Adventure Games (Also
known as initiative games): an activity which is not identifiable as a low element or high
element activity, but which require spotting
to protect a participant if they fall. Activities that do not require spotting are games.
Artificial surface(s): a
man-made structure. Also called ‘artificial structures’ and may include but is not limited to portable
climbing/abseiling walls, climbing gyms, challenge course elements, fixed
climbing/abseiling or other towers, buildings and bridges.
Assisted belay (also
known as ‘dynamic belay’ and ‘team belay’): belay
system operated by at least one person who is not the climber.
Auto belay: a
specialized belay device that operates automatically and removes the need for a
Auto-locking: a connector that will automatically lock to prevent
it from opening and requires two or more deliberate actions to unlock.
Belay line: the line
that is used in an assisted belay to
connect to the climber.
Belay System: the means
by which the climber or abseiler is protected from an uncontrolled fall
Belayer: a person that
operates the belay system.
Bouldering: a form of
climbing activity, limited in height and for which fall safety can be achieved
by the provision of an impact absorbing system, by a spotter providing control of a fall or by a
combination of these measures.
Carabiner: (refer connector).
Climber: the person who
is protected by spotting or a belay system.
Competence: ability to
apply knowledge and skills to achieve expected results.
Competencies: the plural
of competence. Having competence in more than one ability.
leader/participant/person/assessor: someone who has the competence to perform specific functions.
Connector(s): a metal
device used to link components together. A connector may be:
a connector that cannot be locked to
prevent it opening
- Self closing:
a connector that automatically closes
- Locking: a connector that can be manually locked and
unlocked without a tool to reduce the possibility of it opening
- Tool locked:
a device that requires a tool to manually lock and unlock. (A maillon is an example of a tool locked connector.)
a connector that will automatically lock to
prevent it from opening and requires two or more deliberate actions to unlock.
Contact rescue: a rescue
requiring an activity leader to manoeuvre
to the persons actual location to physically assist them.
Collective belay: a fall
from height safety system that operates without a person intervening or
operating it. (For example, soft-fall or a pool of water in a fall
zone, guardrail, fence etc.)
Continuous belay: belay system that enables climbers to progress
from one activity system element to the next and that does not require climbers to undo or change the connection to the belay system.
Continuous self-belay: belay system operated by the climber that enables climbers to progress from one activity system
element to the next and that does not require climbers
to undo or change the connection to the belay
Critical line: a part of
an element that a safety system attaches
Dynamic belay: refer assisted belay.
Dynamic rope: a
specially constructed kernmantle rope that is somewhat elastic under load. The
elastic stretch under load is what makes the rope dynamic. (Also see static rope.)
Element: a temporary,
mobile or permanent physical structure where a person requires a system to protect
them from an uncontrolled fall or descent.
Fall height: The
vertical distance between the climbers or
abseilers lowest body element and the surface beneath.
Fall factor: is the
ratio of the height of a fall (h) (measured before the rope or lanyard begins
to stretch) and the rope or lanyard length available to absorb the energy of
the fall (L). It is used as a representation of the severity of a fall when
arrested by a belay system. It is calculated by (h) divided by (L).
Fall zone: The surface
that can be hit by a climber or abseiler
Flash flooding: is
flooding in a localised area with a rapid onset, usually as the result of
relatively short intense bursts of rainfall.
Flying fox: a means of
travel along a sloping rope or wire by attaching to it using a free moving
pully and being propelled by gravity.
GPG: Good Practice Guide
High element: (also
known as high ropes) is any element or
series of elements where the fall height means fall safety requires a belay system using harnesses and specialist
safety equipment or other established methods or systems.
Initiative games: See adventure games.
Interlocking device: a belay system using two lanyards that have
interconnected carabiners, so that when one carabiner is locked it
automatically leads to unlocking the other one and vice-versa.
Level 1, 2 or 3:
describes the type of supervision provided to participants. The level meaning is:
- Level 1 –
where a nominated person responsible for supervising others during all or part
of the activity is able to physically intervene immediately. (Aligns with level
1 in Australian Standard AS 2316.2.2:2016 and direct
supervision in the Core GPG).
- Level 2 – where
a nominated person responsible for supervising others during all or part of the
activity is able to visually see the participant(s) and verbally intervene
immediately. (Aligns with level 2 in Australian Standard AS 2316.2.2:2016 and direct supervision in the Core GPG).
- Level 3 –
where a nominated person responsible for supervising others during all or part
of the activity is in the vicinity and able to respond promptly to provide
assistance when called upon. (Aligns with level 3 in Australian Standard AS
2316.2.2:2016 and indirect supervision in
the Core GPG).
Level of supervision: a
category system that indicates the type of supervision provided to participants. (Refer Level 1, 2 or 3 for the categories used in this
Locking: a connector that can be manually locked and
unlocked without a tool to reduce the possibility of it opening.
Low element (also known
as low ropes or obstacle courses): any element
or series of elements where the fall height means fall safety can be achieved by spotting, using an impact absorbing system or by
a combination of these measures.
Low obstacle(s): a
temporary, mobile or permanent physical structure where a person does not
require a system to protect them from an uncontrolled fall or descent. (Also
refer low element.)
Minimum Breaking Strength (MBS): is the magnitude of a load that may permanently distort or damage equipment but not cause it to break. (Refer Appendix 3 Equipment load ratings). Equipment should never be loaded to the MBS, even for testing purposes when testing a system before being use, the test should not exceed the safe working load (SWL).
Natural surface(s): the
geologic structure and flora that forms a cliff or steep face.
a participant that is waiting to but is not
currently doing the activity.
Non-locking: a connector that cannot be locked to prevent it
Participant: a person
who undertakes an activity and is not a activity leader
for the activity.
Responsible person: a competent person who is able to complete
delegated elements or tasks during an activity that does not require the
activity-specific competence of an activity leader.
Safety Factor: the ratio between the Minimum Breaking Strength (MBS) and Safe Working Load (SWL) to provide a safety margin. It is expressed as a ratio, example 8:1. (Refer Appendix 3 Equipment load ratings).
Safe Working Load (SWL): is the magnitude of load that does not permanently distort, weaken, damage or break equipment and includes a safety margin. (Refer Appendix 3 Equipment load ratings).
Self-belay (also known
as static belay): belay system that is
operated by the climber.
Self closing: a
connector that automatically closes.
Self locking: (see
connectors – auto-locking).
Slackline: a type of element formed by a length of flat webbing that
is tensioned between two anchors.
Spotter(s): a person or
persons who are spotting.
Spotting: a support
process provided by a person, or persons, who offer physical protection of the
head and upper body of a person should they fall. (Note: The term “spotting” is
sometimes used to describe providing level 2
supervision on high elements. Terms used
can vary and providers can use whatever terminology they prefer. In this
document note that “spotting” is used to identify situations only as defined.
This is to avoid any potential confusion between low
element and high element
Stated Strength: the magnitude of load that is either the Minimum Breaking Strength (MBS) or Safe Working Load (SWL) marked on equipment or listed in the manufacturers literature. (Refer Appendix 3 Equipment load ratings).
Static belay: see self-belay.
Static rope: a specially
constructed low stretch kernmantle rope, that has low elongation under load.
The low elongation or stretch under load is what makes the rope static. (Also
see dynamic rope.)
Team belay: a type of assisted belay. (Also see assisted belay.)
Temporary element: an element that does not remain in place no longer
than consecutive seven days.
Tool locked: a device
that requires a tool to manually lock and unlock. (A maillon is an example of a
tool locked connector.)
Trigger point: a
particular circumstance or situation that causes an action to occur.
Waiting areas: a
location in which to wait prior to undertaking the activity, where it is
reasonable for a person to not be required to use equipment to protect them
from a fall from height.
Also refer to the Core Good Practice Guide – Glossary.