Also refer to Terms and definitions in Core GPG.
Activity leader: collective
noun to describe paddling “guides” and/or “instructors”.
Aeration: mixing of air
and water to form bubbles and froth. The level of aeration of water effects the
amount of buoyancy the water provides to a swimmer or watercraft. Paddling in white-water that involves higher levels of water
aeration may indicate the need for wearing lifejackets
with higher levels of buoyancy.
Beaufort Wind Force Scale
(also referred to as the “Beaufort Scale”): a system for estimating wind
strengths without the use of instruments, based on the effects wind has on the
Breaking waves: swell that reaches shallower water and crests as
the fast-moving back spills over the slower front. Breaking waves can be
plunging or spilling. (Also see waves.)
There is three types of breaking waves –
plunging, spilling or surging waves.
Camping: the use of a
temporary site for overnight camping.
Coastal Waters (Also
known as open water, unprotected): All waters other than inland waters or enclosed
waters and extending a specific number of nautical
miles seaward. Refer to the relevant marine
safety agency for the jurisdiction of operation for details.
(Jurisdictions define the coastal waters number of nautical miles seaward differently but generally
this is between 2 and 3 nautical miles.)
Enclosed waters (also
known as partially smooth, semiprotected, intermediate and sheltered): waters
that include enclosed coastal bays, harbours, declared port waters and similar
waters that are generally offer some form of limited protection from the
environment or weather. Enclosed waters can
be the interface between inland waters
and/or coastal waters. The relevant marine safety agency for the jurisdiction of
operation will generally declare what areas are considered enclosed waters.
Refer to the relevant marine safety agency
Fetch: the length of
water over which a given wind has blown. This effects the sea state.
Flash Flooding: is
flooding in a localised area with a rapid onset.
Flat-water: a waterway
or body of water that is not white-water.
Gusts: increases in wind
speed lasting just a few seconds.
Inland waters (Also
known as smooth waters, protected waters or inland waterways): waters that
include rivers (inside the seaward entrance), creeks, canals, lakes, reservoirs
and any similar waters either naturally formed or manmade and which are either
publicly or privately owned, but does not include any navigable rivers, creeks
or streams within declared port waters. Refer to the relevant marine safety agency for the jurisdiction of
operation for details of declared port waters.
Knot(s): A measurement
of speed used in nautical situations. One knot
is one nautical mile per hour. (1 Knot = 1.852 Kilometres per hour.)
Land manager: the
organisation or owner with jurisdiction over the waterway or water body the
activity is conducted. Land manager may
include marine authorities, marine national park or sanctuary authorities,
harbourmasters etc. Note that is may differ from the marine safety agency. The requirements of both
the land manager and the marine safety agency
need to be considered.
Lifejacket: a worn
device that provides the wearer with additional buoyancy in water. (Also known
as Personal floatation device (PFD))
Marine safety agency:
the statutory organisation that regulates the safety of watercraft and their
operations, in the jurisdiction the activity is conducted.
More difficult conditions: Refer section 5.2.6 More difficult conditions.
Nautical Mile: a
nautical mile (NM) is a unit of distance equal to 1,852 metres (1.852km).
Open crossings: a journey
that is more than 4 NM in length with no chance of landing during the journey.
Open waters: All waters
that are not coastal waters, inland waters or enclosed
Paddle-craft: a type of
watercraft propelled and manoeuvred by the user.
Personal floatation device
(PFD): See lifejacket. (Note that in
Australian, the Australian Standard AS4758.1:2015 no longer uses the term
Personal thermal protection:
clothing worn to mitigate the effects of the temperature of the environment.
Rapid(s): part of a
waterway where the geological features cause increased water speed, turbulence
and/or other hydrological feature(s).
River hazard(s): a
hazard created by a watercourse’s geology and flora, the water within it or a
combination of both. Common river hazards include but is not limited to: level
of aeration of the water, drops, entrapment
points, fast flowing water, floating objects, undercut rocks, recirculations, rapids, sieves, strainers, submerged objects etc.
Safety boat: a
watercraft operated by a safety boater that
has been specifically designated to providing safety coverage during an
activity. For example, a safety kayaker using a white-water
kayak providing onriver safety coverage during a raft trip, a rescue boat used
to assist canoe activities on a lake etc.
Safety boater: an
activity leader who has the additional skills, knowledge and experience
necessary to provide safety support from a safety
boat. (Refer safety boat for
Sea kayaking: involves
paddling a paddle-craft on waters that are
not inland waters. It includes the use of
both sit in and sit on top paddle-craft.
Seas: the local
conditions created by wind blowing on water and creating movement. (Seas are described by the Bureau of Meteorology
as calm, smooth, slight, etc.)
Surf zone: an area that
has breaking waves that are plunging or
spilling. (Also see breaking waves, wave zone and waves.)
Swell: waves of energy
travelling through water. Because swell can be generated far off the coast,
these waves can come as a surprise since it could be sunny with little wind
when they arrive. Swell is described by the Bureau of Meteorology in terms of
its wave length, period and wave height. (Also see waves.)
Swell/Wave period: the
average time between crests (or troughs) of swell
Trigger point: a
particular circumstance or situation that causes an action to occur.
Waves: swell that reaches shallower water and peaks. Involves
energy travelling through water created by intense weather systems that are
higher, steeper and more chaotic than usual. (Also see swell.) There are three types of waves: plunging, spilling and surging waves.
(Also see breaking waves.)
Wave zone: an area that
has surging waves or breaking waves that are plunging or spilling.
(Also see breaking waves, surf zone and waves.)
White-water: a section
of a waterway where the water current or tidal movement is sufficient to create
hydrological feature(s). Hydrological feature(s) may
include but not limited to rapids, eddies,
waves, whirlpools etc.
Also refer to the Core Good Practice Guide – Glossary.